DESCRIPTION: With the global economic crisis, European adult education discourse has been overwhelmed with the issues of employability and there is a growing tendency for learning to be reduced to skills development, which is already in the recent EU documents. Emancipatory vision of adult education seems to be forgotten or used as a decoration to competitiveness and
Adult learning differences in genders growth. In spite of long lasting resistance toward gender issues, since the Network has been successful in gathering researchers interested in problematization of gender in adult education and learning, and in keeping debates alive and provocative.
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Nanolinux LR: AMERICA, by the way is a continent (north, central and south), I guess you meant USA.
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POGLIFE 2171: I really appreciate that Mexico was not included.
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In the present study, we examine whether gender differences are present on a word-learning task, and test one account of how gender. BEER is a consultant in adult learning and an instructor of adult and continuing These studies suggest that differences exist betwecn male and female norms. Gender dimension in adult education in Europe remains marginalized. the grey area of gendered learning which goes much deeper than gender differences.
In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal Adult learning differences in genders the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words.
Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words but not phonologically-unfamiliar novel words can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge.
Results revealed that Adult learning differences in genders outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli.
These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning.
Individual differences in language acquisition are pervasive and apparent. Some children acquire language faster than others, and some adults acquire a second language with greater alacrity than others. Both biological and social factors, as well as interactions between the two, have been considered as mechanisms underlying individual differences in language acquisition. One biological factor in language development appears to be gender.
From a very early age, girls tend to outpace boys in their language development, demonstrating a larger vocabulary as early as at 16 months of age e. The presence of gender differences on linguistic tasks suggests that the mechanisms of language acquisition may be somewhat distinct for males and females. The goal of the present work was to examine gender differences and their underlying mechanisms on one Adult learning differences in genders linguistic task — novel word learning.
women have been shown to outperform men on semantic tasks like verbal fluency and synonym-generation e. For instance, there have been reports of men outperforming women on linguistic tasks such as the verbal SAT e. Similarly, there have been suggestions Adult learning differences in genders effects of gender on verbal learning tasks become non-significant once Adult learning differences in genders and education levels are taken into account e.
Moreover, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences on verbal tasks when they are obtained are not at all clear, since there is currently no accepted theoretical framework for examining and explaining gender differences in linguistic performance. This model, proposed by Ullman and colleagues ; ; ; localizes the female advantage on linguistic tasks to the declarative memory system.
The declarative memory system is part of long-term memory, and has extensive storage capacity and longevity. Unlike procedural memory, that underlies acquisition of skill e. The declarative memory system is tied to semantic knowledge, and has been localized to the hippocampus, e.
Ullman and collegues proposed that it is the superior function of the declarative memory system that underlies the female advantage on linguistic In previous work, Ullman and colleagues tested their account of gender differences against lexical retrieval patterns in men and women.
Formation of grammatically-complex forms e. In a series of studies, Ullman et al. Similarly, women tend to exploit regularities in language to support learning e. However, gender differences have also been observed on short-term memory tasks, where linguistic information must be retained for only a Adult learning differences in genders period of For instance, women have been shown to surpass men on digit-span tasks e.
Short-term memory and declarative long-term memory have distinct biological bases, cognitive constraints, and functional characteristics e. Instead, the explanations for gender differences on short-term memory tasks tended to focus on differences in strategy use e. However, different explanatory mechanisms for gender differences on long-term and short-term memory tasks may not be necessary, since short-term learning can be supported by the declarative memory system i.
In the current study, we ask whether gender differences can be observed on a short-term memory task like novel word learning, and whether patterns of gender differences, if obtained, would diverge for cases where learning can be supported by long-term linguistic knowledge vs. A number of memory models posit a relationship between the short-term memory processes and the long-term memory system e. Effects of long-term memory on learning are supported by studies demonstrating that lexical and semantic characteristics associated with the native language can influence short-term memory function e.
Similar influences rooted in native-language phonological knowledge have also been shown to affect phonological short-term memory e. In general, retention of novel words that fit the native-language L1 phonological structure is facilitated compared to novel words that diverge from native-language phonology e. The facilitation effects associated with familiar phonology are due to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. When the novel word is phonologically-familiar i.
Because learning of phonologically-familiar items but not of phonologically-unfamiliar items involves the long-term i. Therefore, the female advantage on the items in the primary region of the list suggested that girls relied on long-term memory during the retrieval process more than boys. The goal of the present work was to examine whether the female advantage on short-term phonological memory tasks can be localized to the declarative memory system.
In Experiment 1, we test the differences between men and women on a word-learning task,
Adult learning differences in genders phonological familiarity of novel words was manipulated between subjects. In Experiment 2, we replicate Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design in order to ensure that the findings obtained in Experiment 1 are not due Adult learning differences in genders between-group confounds. To that end, men and women were compared on their ability to learn phonologically-familiar vs.
Encoding of phonologically-familiar is more likely to rely on long-term phonological knowledge than encoding of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. If the female advantage on short-term verbal memory tasks is rooted
Adult learning differences in genders their reliance on long-term memory, then gender differences Adult learning differences in genders be more apparent for phonologically-familiar novel words than for phonologically-unfamiliar novel words.
The study followed a 3-way mixed design, with gender male vs. Dependent variables intended to capture the success of vocabulary learning included recall accuracy and recognition accuracy. Responses were coded as 1s if correct or zeros if incorrect. Therefore, the dependent variable was categorical in nature and binomially distributed.
Sixty-eight participants were tested, 34 men and 34 women. All participants were monolingual native speakers of English. Further, phonological familiarity was manipulated as a between-subjects variable in order to make the task more ecologically valid. When participants learned phonologically-unfamiliar novel words, the situation was similar to learning new words in a foreign language. All participants male and female were recruited from the undergraduate student population of Northwestern University, and were randomly assigned to either the phonologically-familiar or the phonologically-unfamiliar condition.
In order to ensure that the groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, participants were matched for age and years of education across the four sub-groups. In addition, participants were matched for their performance on vocabulary
Adult learning differences in genders memory measures. See Table 1 for
Adult learning differences in genders characteristics across the four sub-groups. Phonologically-Unfamiliar novel words in Experiment 1. The values in parentheses represent Standard Errors.
Two artificial phonemic inventories constructed by Kaushanskaya and Marian were used in the current study. These phonemic inventories consist of 8 Adult learning differences in genders. An artificial language based on 8 sounds 4 vowels and 4 consonants has been shown to be suitable for examining how incidental phonotactic learning can influence subsequent short-term memory performance Majerus et al.
Eight English phonemes were Adult learning differences in genders to construct the artificial phonologically-familiar inventory: To create the phonologically-unfamiliar inventory, four English phonemes in the phonologically-familiar inventory were replaced with non-English phonemes.
Forty-eight monosyllabic and disyllabic phonologically-familiar novel words and matching forty-eight monosyllabic and disyllabic phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were created. The probability for the phonologically-familiar novel words was calculated using Phonotactic Probability calculator e.
The phonologically-familiar novel words had an average phonotactic probability of 1. A male native speaker of English who was extensively trained on all pronunciations recorded both the phonologically-familiar and the phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. The 48 translation pairs are listed in the Appendix. The English translations were on average 4. None of the non-words were similar to their English translations in either phonology or orthography.
We have used these stimuli extensively in previous work to examine effects of cross-linguistic phonological overlap on mapping novel phonological words onto their orthographic representations e. These prior studies indicated that monolingual speakers of English perceive phonologically-unfamiliar novel words to be markedly different from English words, find these words more difficult to pronounce than phonologically-familiar novel words; and rate them lower on the scale or being a likely English word than phonologically-familiar novel words.
Participants heard the novel word pronounced twice over the headphones, and saw its written English translation on the computer screen. Participants were instructed to repeat the novel word and its English translation out loud three times. Each pair was presented twice during the learning phase. During recall testing, participants heard the novel word and pronounced its English translation into a microphone. During recognition testing, participants heard novel words over headphones and chose the correct English translations from five alternatives listed on the computer screen.
Of the five alternatives, one answer was correct, two answers were translations of other novel words
Adult learning differences in genders the list, one answer was an English word that was semantically
Adult learning differences in genders to the correct answer, and answer was an unrelated English word not previously presented.
Because recall and recognition of English words rather than recall and recognition of newly-learned words was tested, the current study was able to examine phonological familiarity effects in word-learning while at the same time avoiding confounds associated with the fact that phonologically-unfamiliar sequences are also more difficult to pronounce. Phonological familiarity effects obtained in the current paradigm would thus suggest a clear reliance on native-language phonological knowledge, rather than be an outcome of easier articulation associated with phonologically-familiar information.
To ensure equal Adult learning differences in genders of vocabulary knowledge and phonological memory across four sub-groups, all participants were administered standardized assessment measures of vocabulary knowledge and phonological memory.
Recall and recognition accuracy data were each analyzed using a Generalized Linear Mixed Effects Model for binomially distributed outcomes where the accuracy data were transformed using the logit function mixed logit model from now on.
In such a model, the log or logit odds of being correct are examined against the factors in the model. In the current study, we modeled logit odds of recalling or recognizing the correct English translations as a function of gender and phonological familiarity modeled as between-subjects factors and of testing session modeled as a repeated factor.
A mixed logit model yielded significant main effects of phonological familiarity and
Adult learning differences in genders session, as well as a significant three-way interaction among gender, phonological familiarity, and testing session see Table 2. All two-way interactions were also significant. To identify the locus of the interaction, two types of follow-up analyses were conducted.
First, to examine whether men and women performed differently on the two types of novel words, recall accuracy data were modeled separately for phonologically-familiar and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words with gender as the fixed factor. Second, to examine whether phonological familiarity exerted different
Adult learning differences in genders in men vs.
A mixed logit model on recognition accuracy data yielded significant main effects of phonological familiarity and testing session, as well as a significant two-way interaction between gender and phonological familiarity see Table 3. The p values represent the results of an independent-samples t-test with group men vs. To parallel the analyses of recall data, two types of follow-up analyses were conducted on the recognition data. First, to examine whether men and women perform differently on the two types of novel words, recognition accuracy data were modeled separately for phonologically-familiar and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words with gender as the fixed factor.
The findings confirmed this hypothesis. Women outperformed men when learning phonologically-familiar novel words that fit the English phonological structure. Conversely, women and men performed similarly when learning phonologically-unfamiliar novel words that diverged from the English phonological structure.
In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process.
In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli.
These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning.
Individual differences in language acquisition are pervasive and apparent. Some children acquire language faster than others, and some adults acquire a second language with greater alacrity than others.
Both biological and social factors, as well as interactions between the two, have been considered as mechanisms underlying individual differences in language acquisition.
In this regard, we obverse changes in the ways of wisdom highlighting those that take region outside formal educational and training institution and that do not depend directly on the trainer or structured processes. Specifically, the collection method is a computer-assisted personal interview, through stratified non-specific sampling, of items to 17, Spanish persons. In this sanity, it has a twofold direct 1 to analyze if there are gender differences in non-formal and informal activities carried out; and, if so, 2 to identify the variables associated with these differences.
Therefore, we reason descriptive and inferential statistics of the most important variables. The outcomes indicate significant differences surrounded by male and female sexes in regards to age, nationality and social class for taking in behalf of in non-formal and informal culture activities. The current situation of gender differences in non-formal and informal learning activities in the Spanish adult population.
Gender differences; Lifelong learning; Adults; National surveys Dates: The University of Leeds Academic Units: Symplectic Publications Beau Deposited: Sociedad Espanola de Pedagogia Identification Number:
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